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Kashmiri Encyclopedia - कॉशिरिस इनसाइक्लोपीडिया

पानामा

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पानामा उत्तर अमेरिका महाद्वीपे दक्षिणक्षेत्रे एक: देश: अस्‍ति.

Panama was part of Spain's colonies in America until 1821 when it seceded and joined the Gran Colombia of Simón Bolívar. It can be argued that to a large extent, Panama's history has been a slave to its geography. This was true in its early history as well as in its more recent history.

Indeed much of Panama's domestic politics and international diplomacy in the 20th century was tied to the Panama Canal. At the turn of the 20th century, Theodore Roosevelt's vision of an interoceanic seaway encouraged United States diplomatic efforts to facilitate a deal that would allow it to take over French canal operations started by Ferdinand de Lesseps. In November 1903, United States naval maneuverings helped the Panamanian rebels secede from Colombia in an almost bloodless revolution. In Panama City, on November 3, the rebels, headed by Amador Guerrero, declared Panama an independent Republic. Just over two weeks later, representatives of the fledgling republic signed the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty by which Panama granted rights to the United States to build and administer the Panama Canal. This treaty had been a contentious diplomatic issue between the United States and Panama until the signing of the Torrijos-Carter Treaty in 1977.

The Panamanian government was long mired in political instability and corruption and often the mandate of an elected president would terminate prematurely. In 1968, Gen. Omar Torrijos took over the reigns of government and was the virtual strongman of Panama until his death in an airplane accident in 1981. After Torrijos' death, power eventually became concentrated in the hands of Gen. Manuel Noriega. Relations with the United States soured by the end of the 1980s, particularly as a result of Noriega's role in international drug trade and money-laundering and the absence of free elections in Panama. The death of a U.S. Marine in Panama, and harassment of U.S. citizens in Panama, prompted a U.S. invasion in December 1989, dubbed Operation Just Cause. Noriega sought asylum in the Vatican diplomatic mission, but after a few days turned himself in to the American military. Noriega was immediately taken to Florida where he was formally charged and arrested by United States federal authorities. After Noriega's ouster, democratic rule with regular and open elections was reinstated in Panama, leading to an uncensored press and generally peaceful transitions of executive power. Nevertheless, charges of corruption and cronyism are still levelled against the government by opposition parties and press.

Under the Torrijos-Carter Treaty, on December 31, 1999, the United States returned all canal-related lands, buildings and infrastructure as well as full administration of the canal to Panama.

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