पानामा उत्तर अमेरिका महाद्वीपे दक्षिणक्षेत्रे एक: देश: अस्‍ति.

Panama was part of Spain's colonies in America until 1821 when it seceded and joined the Gran Colombia of Simón Bolívar. It can be argued that to a large extent, Panama's history has been a slave to its geography. This was true in its early history as well as in its more recent history.

Indeed much of Panama's domestic politics and international diplomacy in the 20th century was tied to the Panama Canal. At the turn of the 20th century, Theodore Roosevelt's vision of an interoceanic seaway encouraged United States diplomatic efforts to facilitate a deal that would allow it to take over French canal operations started by Ferdinand de Lesseps. In November 1903, United States naval maneuverings helped the Panamanian rebels secede from Colombia in an almost bloodless revolution. In Panama City, on November 3, the rebels, headed by Amador Guerrero, declared Panama an independent Republic. Just over two weeks later, representatives of the fledgling republic signed the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty by which Panama granted rights to the United States to build and administer the Panama Canal. This treaty had been a contentious diplomatic issue between the United States and Panama until the signing of the Torrijos-Carter Treaty in 1977.

The Panamanian government was long mired in political instability and corruption and often the mandate of an elected president would terminate prematurely. In 1968, Gen. Omar Torrijos took over the reigns of government and was the virtual strongman of Panama until his death in an airplane accident in 1981. After Torrijos' death, power eventually became concentrated in the hands of Gen. Manuel Noriega. Relations with the United States soured by the end of the 1980s, particularly as a result of Noriega's role in international drug trade and money-laundering and the absence of free elections in Panama. The death of a U.S. Marine in Panama, and harassment of U.S. citizens in Panama, prompted a U.S. invasion in December 1989, dubbed Operation Just Cause. Noriega sought asylum in the Vatican diplomatic mission, but after a few days turned himself in to the American military. Noriega was immediately taken to Florida where he was formally charged and arrested by United States federal authorities. After Noriega's ouster, democratic rule with regular and open elections was reinstated in Panama, leading to an uncensored press and generally peaceful transitions of executive power. Nevertheless, charges of corruption and cronyism are still levelled against the government by opposition parties and press.

Under the Torrijos-Carter Treaty, on December 31, 1999, the United States returned all canal-related lands, buildings and infrastructure as well as full administration of the canal to Panama.

ace:Panama af:Panama an:Panamá ar:بنما arz:پاناما ast:Panamá az:Panama bat-smg:Panama bcl:Panama be:Панама be-x-old:Панама bg:Панама bm:Panama bn:পানামা bo:པ་ན་མ། bpy:পানামা br:Panamá bs:Panama ca:Panamà ceb:Panama crh:Panama cs:Panama cv:Панама cy:Panama da:Panama de:Panama diq:Panama dsb:Panama dv:ޕެނަމާ ee:Panama el:Παναμάς en:Panama eo:Panamo es:Panamá et:Panama eu:Panama ext:Panamá fa:پاناما fi:Panama fiu-vro:Panama fr:Panamá frp:Panama fy:Panama ga:Panama gd:Panama gl:Panamá gv:Yn Phanamaa hak:Pâ-nâ-mâ haw:Panamā he:פנמה hif:Panama hr:Panama ht:Panama (peyi) hu:Panama hy:Պանամա id:Panama ilo:Panama io:Panama is:Panama it:Panamá ja:パナマ jbo:panamas jv:Panama ka:პანამა kk:Панама kn:ಪನಾಮಾ ko:파나마 ku:Panama kw:Panama la:Panama lad:Panama lb:Panama lij:Panamá lmo:Panama ln:Panama lt:Panama lv:Panama mg:Panama mk:Панама ml:പനാമ mr:पनामा ms:Panama nah:Panama nds:Panama ne:पानामा new:पनामा nl:Panama (land) nn:Panama no:Panama nov:Panama nrm:Panama oc:Panamà (país) os:Панамæ pam:Panama pap:Panama pih:Panama pl:Panama pms:Panamà pnb:پانامہ ps:پاناما pt:Panamá qu:Panama ro:Panama ru:Панама sa:पानामा sah:Панама scn:Panamà se:Panama sh:Panama simple:Panama sk:Panama (štát) sl:Panama sq:Panama sr:Панама stq:Panama sv:Panama sw:Panama szl:Panama ta:பனாமா tg:Панама th:ประเทศปานามา tl:Panama tpi:Panama tr:Panama ug:پاناما uk:Панама ur:پاناما uz:Panama vec:Pànama vi:Panamá vo:Panamän war:Panamá wo:Panamaa wuu:巴拿马 xal:Панамудин Орн yo:Panamá zh:巴拿马 zh-classical:巴拿馬 zh-min-nan:Panamá