कम्बोज, कम्बोदिया (in Khmer, ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រ កម្ពុជា ) is a country in Southeast Asia. It is bordered in the south by the Gulf of Thailand, in the west by Thailand, Laos in the north, and Vietnam in the east.
|National motto: Nation, Religion, King|
|Prime Minister||Hun Sen|
- % water
|Ranked 87th |
November 9, 1953
|Time zone||UTC +7|
After centuries of territorial and population losses to neighboring Siam and Vietnam, Cambodia was made French protectorate in 1863, and became part of French Indochina. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, the Cambodians declared independence in 1953.
During the War in Indochina (1946-1975), the Nixon administration of the United States conducted massive bombing campaigns against Cambodia. Some estimate civilian casualties as high as 600,000. In 1970, General Lon Nol seized power and declared the Khmer Republic. The government was opposed by the nationalist and communist Khmer Rouge, which had gathered strength because of popular resentment against the U.S. bombing campaigns. The Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and renamed the country Kampuchea. Approximately 1.7 million people died during their three year social revolution.
A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge from power and into pockets along the western border with Thailand. A further 13 years of sporadic fighting took place before UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normality. A coalition government, formed after national elections in 1998, brought renewed political stability and the surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces. None of the Khmer Rouge leaders have been tried and convicted of crimes committed during the three years in which they held power.
Cambodia is divided into 20 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 3 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural):
- Banteay Mean Cheay
- Kampong Cham
- Kampong Chhnang
- Kampong Spoe
- Kampong Thum
- Kaoh Kong
- Keb *
- Mondol Kiri
- Otdar Mean Cheay
- Phnom Penh*
- Preah Seihanu* (Sihanoukville)
- Preah Vihear
- Prey Veng
- Rotanah Kiri
- Siem Reab
- Stoeng Treng
- Svay Rieng
Cambodia is about 181,040 square kilometers, sharing a 800-kilometer border with Thailand on north and west, a 541-kilometer border with Laos on northeast, and a 1,228- kilometer border with Vietnam on east and southeast. It has 443 kilometers of coastline along the Gulf of Thailand.
The most salient topographical feature is the lacustrine plain formed by the inundations of Tonle Sap (Great Lake), measuring about 2,590 square kilometers during the dry season to about 24,605 square kilometers during the rainy season. This densely populated plain, which is devoted to wet rice cultivation, constitutes the heartland of Cambodia. Most (about 75 percent) of the country lies at elevations of less than 100 meters above sea level, except for the Cardamon Mountains (highest elevation 1,771 meters), their north-south extension to the east, Elephant Range (elevation range 500-1,000 meters) and the steep escarpment of Dangrek Mountains (average elevation 500 meters) along northern border with Thailand.
Temperatures range from 10 °C to 38 °C. Cambodia experiences tropical monsoons: southwest monsoon blowing inland in northeasterly direction brings moisture-laden winds from Gulf of Thailand/Indian Ocean from May to October with period of heaviest precipitation September-October; northeast monsoon blowing in southwesterly direction toward coast ushers in the dry season, November to March, with period of least rainfall January-February.
Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997-1998 due to the regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political infighting. Foreign investment and tourism fell off. In 1999, the first full year of peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms and growth resumed at 5.0%. Despite severe flooding, GDP grew at 5.0% in 2000, 6.3% in 2001, and 5.2% in 2002. Tourism was Cambodia's fastest growing industry, with arrivals up 34% in 2000 and up another 40% in 2001 before the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the US. Even given these stout growth estimates, the long-term development of the economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure. Fear of renewed political instability and corruption within the government discourage foreign investment and delay foreign aid. The government is addressing these issues with assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors.
Cambodia is ethnically homogeneous, as more than 90 percent of its population is Khmer. National minorities comprise about 3 percent of total population. The Cham, of Islamic faith, are the most significant minority group. Other scattered tribal minorities live in the upland and forested areas. There are also some minor Vietnamese and Chinese populations.
Theravada Buddhism, suppressed by Khmer Rouge, but now revived, is the main religion.
विविध विषय: Edit
- List of Cambodia-related topics
- Communications in Cambodia
- Transportation in Cambodia
- Military of Cambodia
- Foreign relations of Cambodia
- Holidays in Cambodia
External Links Edit
- Government website
- Private website with resource and information on the language, food, employment, culture, geography of Cambodia
- Directory, usenet
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